Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation
UNESCO World Wide Heritage
Delimitation territory of the / Danube Delta Biosphere Reservetion is the point terminus where the Danube River flows. It is bordered by the following localities: Issaccea in North West, Parches, Somova, Mineri / Miners and Tulcea, capital city of Tulcea County, locations that are located in the Southeast, also in the south east we find towns Nufaru / Water Lily, Baltenii de Sus / Upper Balteni, Baltenii de Jos / Lower Balteni, Mahmudia, Murighiol, Dunavatu de Sus / Upper Dunavatu, Dunavatu de Jos / Lower Dunavatu, in the south we find Lake Razim lake, Lake Golovita with Gura Portitei, the village that lies between two nature reserves, namely: Sand Reserve Wolves and natural reserve Periteasca Leahova, Dranov Lake, Lake and Lake Sinoe Zmeica. Reserve delimitation continues in the South East with the Black Sea, the lagoon Sacalin, Sf Gheorghe, Sulina, golf Musura and Danube in the North East – comprised only just on the boundary of the Romanian Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. A small part of the reserve belongs to Ukraine. Northeast them. Delimitation Reserve in Romania in the north continues along the Danube town of Periprava Chilia Veche, and in the North East continue to Pardina, Ceatalchioi, Sălceni, Patlageanca and Parches.
The Danube Delta (Romanian: Delta Dunării pronounced [ˈdelta ˈdunərij] ( listen); Ukrainian: Дельта Дунаю, Del’ta Dunaju) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent. The greater part of the Danube Delta lies in Romania (Tulcea County), while its northern part, on the left bank of the Chilia arm, is situated in Ukraine (Odessa Oblast). The approximate surface area is 4,152 km2 (1,603 sq mi), and of that, 3,446 km2 (1,331 sq mi) are in Romania. With the lagoons of Razim-Sinoe (1,015 km2 (392 sq mi) with 865 km2 (334 sq mi) water surface), located south of the main delta, the total area of the Danube Delta reaches 5,165 km2 (1,994 sq mi). The Razelm – Sinoe lagoon complex is geologically and ecologically related to the delta proper and their combined territory is part of the World Heritage Sites.
Geography and geology
The modern Danube Delta began to form after 4000 BCE in a bay of the Black Sea, when the sea rose to its present level. A sandy barrier blocked the Danube bay where the river initially built its delta. Upon filling the bay with sediments, the delta advanced outside this barrier-blocked estuary after 3500 BCE, building several successive lobes: the St. George I (3500-1600 BCE), the Sulina (1600-0 BCE), the St. George II (0 BC-Present) and the Chilia or Kilia (1600 CE to present). Several other internal lobes were constructed in the lakes or lagoons bordering the Danube delta to the North (Chilia I and II) and toward the South (Dunavatz). Much of the alluvium in the delta and a major expansion of its surface area in the form of lobes resulted from soil erosion associated with clearing of forests in the Danube basin during the 1st and 2nd millennium. Geologist Liviu Giosan told The New York Times that:
Probably 40 percent of the Delta was built in the last 1000 years. Finding that was like a eureka moment.
At present the delta suffers from a large sediment deficit after the construction dams on Danube and its tributaries in the later half of the 20th century. However, construction of a dense network of shallow channels in the delta over the same period attenuated the deficit on the delta plain but increased erosion at the coast The Danube Delta is a low alluvial plain, mostly covered by wetlands and water. It consists of an intricate pattern of marshes, channels, streamlets and lakes.
Distributaries of the Danube
The Danube branches into three main distributaries into the delta, Chilia, Sulina, and Sfântul Gheorghe (Saint George). The last two branches form the Tulcea channel, which continues as a single body for several kilometers after the separation from the Chilia. At the mouths of each channel gradual formation of new land takes place, as the delta continues to expand.
Ecosystems of running water
It comprises the Danube arms, as well as a series of more important streamlets and channels. It is an environment rich in plankton, worms, mollusca, grubs, spongiae, with numerous species of fish, such as the carp, pike perch, sheat fish, and freshwater sturgeons (sterlet, Vyza and Danube mackerel).
Ecosystem of stagnant water
Includes the lakes, to which various ponds, streamlets and channels are added. They are characterized by a rich floating and submerse flora (Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, Vallisneria etc. under the water; Nymphaea alba, Nuphar lutea, Trapa natans, Alisma plantago etc., floating plants with roots near the lakes borders; Salvinia natans, Stratiotes aloides, Spirogyra etc., floating plants without roots, having negative effects for the aquatic bioproductivity). Of the fish, the most important are Tinca tinca, Abramis brama, Scardinius erytrophalmus, Carassius auratus gibelio, Silurus glanis, Perca fluviatilis, Esox lucius etc.
Ecosystems of marshy and flooding areas. Pelicans in Danube Delta
The Danube Delta birds: grey heron (Ardea cinerea), mallard or wild duck (Anas platyrhynchos), great white pelican (Ardea cinerea), great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus). Stamp of Romania, 2004.
The reed plats and floating reed islands (called plaur in Romania) are the most common and well known components of the Danube Delta. Vegetation of this ecosystem consists of common reed (Phragmites communis), and near river banks mace reed/cattail (Typha latifolia, Typha angustifolia), sedge (Carex dioica, Carex stricta), Dutch rush (Scirpus radicans, Scirpus lacustris), brook mint (Mentha aquatica) etc. They constitute ideal spawning and nesting grounds. The plaur is a mixture of reed roots, grass and soil, usually floating or anchored on the bottom. As a rule, the reed surrounds the lakes and ponds, slowly invading the water surface.
This type of ecosystem is noted for the variety and large populations of birds, some of them very rare. The most important are the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula, red crested pochard (Netta rufina), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), greylag goose (Anser anser), pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus), purple heron (Ardea purpurea), great white egret (Egretta alba), little egret (Egretta garzetta), Spoon bill (Platalea leucorodia), white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), mute swan (Cygnus olor), glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus). A recent and welcomed spreading has the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).
Among the mammals, there is the otter (Lutra lutra), mink (Mustela lutreola), little ermine (Mustela erminea aestiva), wild boar (Sus scrofa), wild cat (Felis silvestris), and in the winter, the hare (Lepus europaeus), and on the brink of disappearing from the delta, the wolf and the fox. The East Asian raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), bizam/introduced muskrat (Ondatra zibethica), and to some extent South American nutria (Myocastor coypus) are recent species successfully adapted. River banks and levees ecosystems Black-crowned night heron Paleogeography of Danube Delta, since Petre Gâstescu é Romulus Stiuca
The firm land of the delta used to be covered with large groves of willow trees, cut almost entirely and replaced with Canadian poplars. On the riverbanks kept in natural state, small groves of willow trees (Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea, Salix petandra, Salix triandra etc.) can still be found, mixed with white poplar (Populus alba). Occasionally, the willow trees form corridors along the Danubes arms and bigger channels. On the levees of Letea and Caraorman, mixed forests of oaks (Quercus robur, Quercus pedunculiflora) with various trees (Fraxinus pallisae, Ulmus foliacea, Populus tremula), shrubs (Prunus spinosa, Crataegus monogyna, Rosa canina, Berberis vulgaris etc.), and vines (Vitis sylvestris, Hedera helix, Humulus lupulus, Periploca graeca, which reaches up to 25m) grow on sand dunes. On the Letea levee, these exotic looking forests grow especially in the depressions between the sand dunes, in small groves called hasmace. Fauna of this region includes meadow viper (Vipera ursinii), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), etc.
information source: wikipedia.org
At the end of a road that exceed 2860 kilometers, collecting an impressive water catchment area of which covers more than 80% of the area of Europe, the Danube, the second largest river of the old continent builds his meeting with the Black Sea, more over 10 000 years, one of the most beautiful deltas in Europe and even the world, known as one of the great wetlands of the planet. And dry expanses of water formed here gives good living conditions for many species of plants and animals. Of these, the reed form one of the largest areas in the world Compact and Letea and Caraorman forests represent the northern two rare species in our country oak, frequent in southern areas of the Balkans and Italy. Along with the large number of aquatic and terrestrial plants meet here and colonies of pelicans and cormorants specific so the Delta and a number of other seabirds that live or come here to nest or overwinter. It also notes the large number of fish species with high economic and ecological value.
Arguably the impressive diversity of habitats and life forms that hosts a relatively small area, the Danube Delta is a true museum of biodiversity, a natural gene bank of universal invaluable natural heritage.
information source: www.ddbra.ro/rezervatia