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The Danube is the second longest of Europe rivers after Volga

The Danube river the second longest of Europe rivers and the only one that flow from the west to the east

Danube map / credit photo

Danube map / credit photo

The Danube is the second longest of the rivers of Europe (after the Volga), being the only river that flowing from west to east. Springing below the peak Kandel 1241 m in the Black Forest, Germany. In the town of Donaueschingen altitude 678, the two brooks Breg and Brigach mix their waters in the park of the Fürstenberg castle, starting to the east.


The Danube flows to the southeast, a distance of about 2860 km, to the Black Sea. At the mouth of the river into the Black Sea to the Danube Delta format. Danube is an important international river road, flowing through 10 countries (Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine) and has tributaries in seven countries. Pass through four state capitals: Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest and Belgrade.


History of the Danube

Napoleon called Danube “European river king” and Nicolae Iorga, “the richest in gifts” she enjoying by the attention of the peoples of the entire continent; on its shores were forged and lasted until today millenary civilizations. For Romanian Land and Moldova, the Danube was fighting the Ottoman Empire line.


Etymology of the name

Since ancient times, the Danube had several names: Istra / Istru / Hister / Danaistru to lower sector in the writings of the Greek and Latin in the Roman Danubius.

The name given by the Romans “Danubius” (god of rivers) was later taken over by other nations, and changed, becoming Donau in German, Dunaj in Slovak, Duna in Hungarian, Dunav in Croatian, Dunav; Дунав in Bulgarian and Serbian, Дунай (Dunai) in Ukrainian, for the riparian countries and Danube in English and French and Tuna in Turkish.

Name from Romanian Dunarea, although it is related to the Latin name, it can not be derived from using normal phonetic change. Tried an explanation by an intermediate name *Donaris, but it is not found in any ancient document, it is a reconstruction of modern linguistics.


The lengths of the Danube banks spread across countries


Germany: right bank of 678.6 km, 687.0 km left bank
Austria: the right bank of 357.5 km, 321.5 km left bank
Slovakia: the right bank of 22.5 km, 172.1 km left bank
Hungary: the right bank of 471.2 km, 275.2 km left bank
Croatia: the right bank of 137.5 km
Serbia: the right bank of 449.9 km, 358.0 km left bank
Bulgaria: the right bank of 471.6 km,
Romania: the right bank of 354.1 km, 1050 km left bank
Moldova: 0.6 km left bank
Ukraine: 79.60 km left bank


Danube Basin assigned to the countries


Romania (29.9%),
Hungary (11.7%),
Serbia (10.3%),
Austria (10.2%),
Germany (7.5%)
Slovakia (5.8%),
Bulgaria (5.2%),
Bosnia and Herzegovina (4.8%),
Croatia (4.5%),
Ukraine (3.8%),
Czech Republic (2.6%),
Slovenia (2.2%),
Switzerland (0.32%),
Moldova (0.29%),
Italy (0.15%)
Poland (0.09%),

Danube in Romania

Lower course is conducted over a distance of 1075 km between localities Bazias and Sulina, making border with Serbia (235.5 km), Bulgaria (469.5 km), Moldova (0.6 km) and Ukraine (53.9 km). Because crosses a variety of natural areas lower course is divided into 5 sectors (Ujvari, 1972):

Carpathian Gorge (144 km)
South Black Sea sector (566 km)
Oriental puddles Pontic sector (195 km)
Predobrogean sector (80 km)
Sector Delta (90 km)


Danube collects most of Romanian rivers except some of Dobrogea, transporting annually about 60 million tons of silt and 200 cubic meters of water. Also of special importance to: navigation, hydropower, fisheries, providing water for industry, agriculture, population.


On the Danube Valley are many settlements including 18 cities (Moldova Noua, Orsova, Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Calafat, Corabia, Turnu Magurele, Zimnicea, Giurgiu, Oltenita, Calarasi, Fetesti, Cernavoda, Harsova, Braila, Galati, Isaccea, Sulina and Tulcea, being crossed by five roads and three railroads.

In the years of socialism have been made drainage along the Danube, during which lakes like Potelu, Greaca, Nedeia disappeared. These lakes hold water during the floods and were an important source of fish. Currently, the lack of lakes lead to serious consequences in times of flood.


Tributaries of the Romanian Danube sector are: Nera, Ribisi, Brook Tiganilor, River Mic, Prva, Marea Valley, Baronul, Bosneag, Varad, Sicolovat, Alibeg, Liuborajdia, Crusovat, Caonita, Camenita, Oravita, Zascoc, Berzasca, Recica, Suva, Cozla Sirina, Eliseva, Saraoschi, Stariste, Paolina, Suscava, Ciuceavca, Iuti, Tisovita, Recita, Liubotina, Plavisevita, Ponicova, Mraconia, Costinetiu, Suhodolu, Mala, Valley Satului, Eselnita, Dalboca, Grotca, Cerna, Bahna , Vodita, Jidostita, Dudas, Topolnita, Bistrita, Blahnita, Drincea, Saraceaua, Desnatui, Nedeia, Jiu, Jiet, the, Ursa, Olt, Olt Bed, Calmatui, Sai, Vedea, Pasarea, Arges, Mostistea, Berza, Almalau, Begena, Galita, Canlia, Canaraua Feyei, Jegalia, Mare Valley, Vederoasa, Urluia, Rasova, Pestera, Tibrin, Dunarea, Calachioi, Chichirgeaua, Ialomita, Topolog, Namolesti, Calmatui, Basburun, Aiorman, Greci, Cerna, Plopilor Valley, Jilila, Siret, Prut, Garla Ciulinetul, Luncavita.
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